This article presents a new approach called Software Defined Radio (SDR) for implementing communication systems. Various issues and challenges faced by the present communication systems design and how the Software defined Radio approach addresses these issues and how it benefits the communication industry and users are discussed in detail. The Technologies, Market, Industry support factors that are driving the SDR approach are narrated. The architecture and the components that make up the SDR are explained and illustrated for the purpose of understanding the technology. And also, the hardware and software components required to build a practical SDR are investigated. The recent availability of multi processors, FPGA, software reference models, and developmental tools that are accelerating the penetration of SDR into the cellular market are explained and reviewed. Currently available SDR reference systems and their modular and extensible architecture are also presented for sake of designers. The market trends and predictions for the SDR are discussed. The paper concludes by defining the future SDR capabilities and identifying the opportunities that exist for IP, Design services business
The Sweep-Away is a self-contained vacuum cleaner that functions both as an automatic dustpan and powerful central vacuum. It stows away neatly inside a standard kitchen or bathroom cabinet and plugs into a standard wall outlet. The home I installed this in was built in the 1960's and is 1600 square feet; all flooring in the home is hardwood or tile. The house was built prior to central vacuum systems so this cabinet vacuum is an affordable and effective alternative.
So here we are in the New Millennium, and thanks to Tom Holman and THX we've got lots of gain in our electronics. More gain than some of us need or want. At least 10 db more. Think of it this way: If you are running your volume control down around 9 o'clock, you are actually throwing away signal level so that a subsequent gain stage can make it back up. Routinely DIYers opt to make themselves a "passive preamp" - just an input selector and a volume control. What could be better? Hardly any noise or distortion added by these simple passive parts. No feedback, no worrying about what type of capacitors - just musical perfection. And yet there are guys out there who don't care for the result. "It sucks the life out of the music", is a commonly heard refrain (really - I'm being serious here!). Maybe they are reacting psychologically to the need to turn the volume control up compared to an active preamp. I suppose if I had to floor the accelerator to drive 55 mph, maybe I'd think the life was being sucked out of my driving. Then again, maybe I like 55. Nice and safe, good gas mileage…
With the overwhelming success of USB technology as the preferred interface, comes the challenge of organizing all of the cabling from desktop peripherals. Users with multiple USB peripherals find the clutter of cables unsightly and inconvenient to their workspace. With many different USB connections for mobile devices, such as cellphones, cameras, MP3 players and PDAs, it becomes increasingly difficult to use them on the go. To overcome these challenges a new method for connecting peripherals has come to fruition. A method, which offers the same benefits of a physical USB connection without the need for unsightly cables, a technology known as certified wireless USB. Using an ultra-wideband radio frequency ranging from 3.1 - 10.6 GHz, 127 devices can connect to a single computer up to 10 meters away without a hub. Connections made less than 3 meters away from the host can benefit from speeds typically USB 2.0, while connections from 3 to 10 meters will operate at 110 Mbps. Devices that support dual role or direct connections with each other can also operate with wireless USB technology.
There has probably been no cinematic special effect that has the longevity that the process of three-dimensional filmmaking has. From the B-movies of the 1950's right up to the state of the art big-budget blockbusters being presented in 3-D on cinema screens today, the effect of 3-D has held a tremendous grip on moviegoers since its very inception and the allure of this tantalizing effect has on the eyes and the mind have kept moviegoers enraptured and hungry for more. In order to fully understand how movies in three-dimension became popular in the first place we must go back to America circa the 1950's. With the advent of television after the Second World War, many moviegoers opted to stay home and watch their television sets instead of going out to the cinema. Filmmakers needed a gimmick… something that would make the movie going experience unique and the gimmick would have to be something that could not be replicated on television sets. Thus, the concept of three-dimensional entertainment was born. When the 3-D format was first introduced on the American cinematic scene, the format could only be replicated in movie theaters and in order to view the film in the three-dimensional format, a movie goer would need a special pair of glasses and keep the glasses on while the movie was shown.
What is the difference between 1080p and 1080i displays? The difference is how the source conveys the information to the display. Interlaced: 1080i sources get transferred on the screen sequentially. The odd-numbered lines of resolution appear on your screen first, followed by the even-numbered lines all within 1/30 of a second. Progressive: 1080p sources get transferred with all lines of resolution simultaneously, which makes for a smoother, cleaner image, especially with sports and other motion-intensive content. The right technology for you is dependant on the content you watch. The majority of HD content via satellite and cable will be available in 720p & 1080i. Your Blu-ray or HD DVDs will be available in 1080p with the appropriate player.
We at McIntosh Labs were pretty impressed with ourselves when we realized the McIntosh 2K reference system weighed in at close to one full ton. It never even occurred to us to imagine what kind of McIntosh system might weigh 75 tons. As it turns out, our imagination was not required. Nearly 32 years earlier, Owsley 'Bear' Stanley, Dan Healy and Mark Raizene of the Grateful Dead sound crew and Ron Wickersham and Rick Turner of Alembic Sound dared to dream of such a system.
Nowadays we have several issues to face that are causing concern to humanity in general and the western world specifically. I don't think I need to repeat them here but basically they are environmental as well as geopolitical in nature. Hence, the old coal or oil burning power plant needs to be phased out and we must become much more efficient at generating and delivering electricity to end users or the costs become extraordinary over time.
Somewhere in the mid 1980's, the NAHB Research Center in Washington was run by a guy I knew (whose name I can't seem to dig up) who had a wacky vision. His idea was to reinvent the way electrical power was distributed throughout the home. They called it Smart Home (not to be confused with the Disney movie of the same name or other stuff that uses that name now). I think it was the first use of the name.
One must consider all of these factors in determining whether electronic controls will replace electromechanical toggle switches. Wireless and powerline controls effectively address two factors in a positive way: absolute price and infrastructure. First, the cost of products based on these technologies is significantly less than traditional control systems installed by home systems integrators. Second, the infrastructure is already in place, so no new wires are needed.
Feedback is very large subject, and I am going to limit myself to some simple tutorial comments and a discussion of phenomena associated with complexity in distortion created by nonlinear gain stages, negative feedback, and the audio signal. Taken singly, these phenomena seem simple enough, but when they interact, they create distortions out of proportion to what you expect from the specifications found in product brochures. There are linear and non-linear forms of distortion. Linear distortions affect the amplitude and phase of audio signals, but don't show up on harmonic distortion analyzers as added frequency components that weren't there in the first place. Tone controls are a good example of circuits with linear distortion. Nonlinear distortions are those which add new frequency components to the original signal, either as harmonic multiples of the original frequencies or as sidebands resulting from their non-linear interaction between the original frequencies. Nonlinearities are often deliberately created in musical instruments themselves, but they are unwanted in music reproduction. We will be talking about nonlinear distortions.
Hundreds of New Product announcements from CES 2009
Every year for the last 20 years, I have been making the trek up to Las Vegas for the annual Consumer Electronics Show. Over the years, the show has evolved from a giant bazaar selling toys, watches and other household gizmos to the most important United States show for electronics, cameras, computers, gaming, audio accessories, etc. This year is no different. So far I have not seen any revolutionary announcements but several trends are definitely emerging.
We don't agree that this year's CES attendance was an indicator of an industry decline. The lower numbers were good for a lot of reasons. Unfortunately when the economic tide turns the hordes will probably be back. 3D movies/TV, mininotebooks and the constant din that we need our entertainment everywhere were the major news points for the show. Beyond that there were incremental enhancements/improvements. Paradigm shifts were not to be seen. But as CEA's Shapiro said it may be tough for a few quarters but the industry is going to innovate itself out of the global economic downturn. Flying to the seat of national government for handouts is not in the companies' DNA. Surviving and thriving in the PC/CE/content industry isn't always easy, sometimes not much fun but it is always interesting. This is one of those really, really interesting periods.
Hundreds of New Product announcements from Integrated Systems Europe 2009
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Automation & Control - Featured Product
Smart Bulbs are out there and they can do far more then just provide light. Speakers, projectors, wi-fi extenders and more. The standard light socket that is wired up and ready to go in nearly every home in North America is now providing an easy and affordable option for home owners and renters alike to enter into the world of the "Smart Home". Here is a look at some of the Smart Bulbs and Smart Lighting options out there, and this list is just the beginning. In this ongoing article we hope to continue to add to and grow this list, so stay tuned!