This paper details the hardware, software technical architecture and specifications of the home gateway devices and lists out the engineering design challenges (along with the possible solutions) faced by a home gateway product designer or a home gateway silicon designer.

Design Challenges for Home Gateway Devices

Satish Gupta | www.wipro.com/homenet/

Design Challenges for Home Gateway Devices
by Satish Gupta
www.wipro.com/homenet/

This paper details the hardware, software technical architecture and specifications of the home gateway devices and lists out the engineering design challenges (along with the possible solutions) faced by a home gateway product designer or a home gateway silicon designer.


Abstract 

The ubiquity of broadband connectivity and the advancements in home networking technologies introduces into market a new breed of consumer premises equipment termed as home gateways or residential gateways. Home gateway device provides the consumer, benefits such as broadband Internet connection sharing, Firewall security, VPN connectivity, IP telephony, audio/video streaming, Wireless LAN connectivity etc.

Although the home gateway device is a consumer communication equipment with a low price point, engineering wise it is a highly sophisticated device demanding a lot of design, integration, development and testing challenges both on the hardware and on the software front. This paper details the hardware, software technical architecture and specifications of the home gateway devices and lists out the engineering design challenges (along with the possible solutions) faced by a home gateway product designer or a home gateway silicon designer.

Table of Contents

1     Home Gateway

2     Home Gateway Device Personalities

2.1      SOHO Router Home Gateway

2.2      Cable Router Home Gateway

2.3      Cable MTA Home Gateway

2.4      DSL IAD / Router Home Gateway

2.5      Digital Settop Box Home Gateway

3     Technical Architecture of Home Gateway

3.1      Hardware Architecture

3.2      Software Architecture

3.3      Home Gateway Engineering Design Challenges

4     References

5     About the Author

6     Glossary


1         Home Gateway

Home gateway, also called as residential gateway is defined as an intelligent network interface device located at the consumer premises. It provides the means for the residential user to access the Internet services delivered to home and also to access the different services offered by the various smart devices located within home. Essentially the home gateway device provides the necessary connectivity features to enable the consumer to exploit the advantages of a networked home.

In technical terms, a home gateway device does the bridging/routing, protocol and address translation between external broadband network and the internal home networks. It acts as a secure firewall, and also is the focal point for applications such as Voice/Video Over IP, home automation etc. Home gateway device allows the residential users to access their home networks and to control various devices from a remote location through Internet.

Figure 1: Home Gateway Usage Scenario

The consumer benefits provided by the Home Gateway device include:

  • Internet connection sharing and simultaneous Internet access

  • In-home file/print sharing

  • In-home Wireless LAN connectivity

  • VPN connectivity to work place

  • Firewall security, parental protection

  • Broadband telephony (Voice over IP)

  • IP Video on Demand

  • In-home audio & video streaming

  • Remote health monitoring

  • Security surveillance

  • Home automation & home control

  • Remote meter reading

For the Service Provider, the home gateway device provides the following benefits:

  • New revenue streams due to new and differentiating services/applications

  • Ability to deliver multiple services through a single consumer premises equipment

  • Ability to reduce the expensive truck roll costs

2         Home Gateway Device Personalities

At the technical functionality level the home gateway device performs the activities such as bridging, routing, security processing (Firewall, VPN), address management, quality of service etc. However the home gateway device may take various physical device personalities or form factors. 

The various physical device personalities of a home gateway is described in Figure-2. Examples of the home gateway device personalities available in the market is provided in  Table-1  and the Consumer benefits offered by them are summarized in Table-2.

The traditional broadband modem devices (cable modem, DSL modem, fixed wireless modem) could be added with the home networking hardware and software functionality so as to perform the role of a home gateway. Most of the new broadband modems in the market have the home networking functionality and hence classify as home gateway devices. The popular home networking options include the Wireless LAN, Home PNA, 4 Port Ethernet Switch, Home Plug etc. and the desired software functionality include bridging, routing, Voice Over IP, VPN, and Firewall Remote Management capabilities.

The traditional Digital Settop Box (STB) is a consumer device providing services like HDTV, content decryption, Personal Video Recorder, electronic programming guide etc.  Optionally it provides Web browsing and interactive television features. The Digital Settop Box is fast evolving in to a Settop Box home gateway, where in it caters to the data, voice and entertainment connectivity needs of all the devices located in the household and does not limit the connectivity to the TV set alone. 

The other device personalities that can be classified as home gateways include the home automation and security gateways. These devices are not full-fledged home gateways. They only provide a subset of the home gateway functionality and serve the niche need of home security surveillance and automation.

Figure 2: Home Gateway Device Personalities

Table 1: Home Gateway Device Personalities in the Market

Home Gateway Personality

Intended Functionality

Example Products in Market

SOHO Router

Home Gateway

Broadband Internet Connection Sharing, VPN, Firewall, Parental Filter, Wireless LAN Residential Access Point

D-link DI-713P, Netgear RP334, Linksys BEFW11S4, Panasonic KX-HGW200

Cable Router

Home Gateway

Secure Cable Broadband to Multiple Clients, VPN, Firewall, Parental Filter, Wireless LAN Residential Access Point

Cisco uBR905, Linksys BEFCMUH4, Motorola (GI) SBG1000

Cable MTA

Home Gateway

(SMTA, EMTA)

Data and Voice Over Cable Broadband Through the PacketCable Standard

Toshiba PCX3000, Arris TouchStone, Tellabs CVM315A, ADC BTI, Thomson THG440

DSL IAD/Router

Home Gateway

Secure DSL Broadband (voice and Data) to Multiple In-home Client Devices

Intel AnyPoint 4200, 2 Wire Home Portal 1000, PolyCom NetEngine 8000, CISCO IAD 2400

Digital STB

Home Gateway

IP Based Video/Entertainment, Streaming, VOIP and Shared Internet Connectivity

Scientific Atlanta Explorer 4000, PACE DSL 4000, Motorola / GI DCT 5100, 5200

Other Types of

Home Gateway

Security/ Home Automation Gateway, PC Based Gateway etc.

Coactive Connector-2010, Echelon I.LON1000, IBM Home Director, Ericcson Ebox

Table 2: Summary of Consumer Benefits offered by Home Gateway Devices

Consumer Benefit

SOHO
Router

Cable
Router

Cable
MTA

DSL
Router

DSL
IAD

STB
Gateway

Broadband Connection Sharing

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

File / Print / Device Sharing

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

VPN Connectivity to Work Place from Home

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

VPN Connectivity to Home/Office from external world

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Print Server

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Optional

Web Based Configuration and Administration

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Displays on TV

Voice Over Broadband Support

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Optional

Firewall Protection

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

URL Filter (Parental Filter)

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Wireless LAN Connectivity

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Service Provider Manageability (CableHome)

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

Optional

One Box Solution (Home Networking + Broadband)

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Video Conferencing / Video Phone Over Broadband

No

No

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

In-Home Audio / Video Distribution & Streaming (VoD)

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

Home Automation and Control

No

No

No

No

No

Yes

2.1      SOHO Router Home Gateway

SOHO Router is a consumer communication device that is connected to the external broadband modem (Cable or DSL modem) via Ethernet or USB and supports Internet connectivity sharing and several other consumer benefits.  It is essentially a two box solution (SOHO Router works in conjunction with a Cable or DSL broadband modem) and it could optionally contain the Wireless LAN (IEEE802.11) Access Point functionality. The typical usage scenario of SOHO Router home gateway is shown in Figure-3.

Figure 3: SOHO Router Home Gateway Usage Scenario

2.2      Cable Router Home Gateway

Cable Router (also called as cable home gateway) device is a one box solution integrating the DOCSIS cable modem device and the SOHO Router device. Cable Router facilitates the cable broadband Internet connection sharing, VPN and other applications all in one box. Application scenario of cable Router home gateway is shown in Figure-4.

Figure 4: Cable Router Home Gateway Usage Scenario

2.3      Cable MTA Home Gateway

Cable MTA (Multimedia Terminal Adaptor) home gateway device provides the Voice and IP Video functionality over cable broadband and is based on the PacketCable Standards from Cablelabs. There are two flavors of cable MTA:

  • EMTA (Embedded Multimedia Terminal Adapter) is a one-box solution providing both Voice Over Cable and High Speed Data Over Cable Broadband.  A DOCSIS 1.1 Cable modem providing the Voice Over Cable functionality is an EMTA.

  • SMTA (Standalone Multimedia Terminal Adapter) is a two-box solution. SMTA device providing the Voice Over Cable functionality is externally connected to a DOCSIS 1.1 cable modem through the USB or Ethernet port.

The application/usage scenario of Cable MTA home gateway is shown in Figure-5.

Figure 5: Cable MTA Home Gateway Usage Scenario

2.4      DSL IAD / Router Home Gateway

DSL IAD (Integrated Access Device) is a single box consumer premises equipment solution, providing for the simultaneous high speed Internet data access and toll quality voice calls over DSL broadband connection. DSL IAD could additionally incorporate the SOHO Router functionality (hence called a DSL Router or DSL residential gateway) and provides for the Internet connection sharing, VPN and Wireless LAN access point benefits to the consumer.

DSL broadband is based on the ATM technology. Data over DSL is transported as AAL5 cells and IP packets are encapsulated in the AAL5 cells. Voice calls (called as derived voice lines) can be made over DSL broadband in two ways :

  • Voice Over DSL: Voice is transported as AAL2 cells. BLES (Broadband Loop Emulation Service) spec TR-036 of DSL forum defines the guidelines.

  • Voice Over IP Over DSL: Voice is transported as IP packets (RTP Packets) which are encapsulated in AAL5 cells. MGCP is commonly used for signaling. However H.323 and SIP signaling are also used based on the investment decisions of TELCO.


Figure 6: DSL IAD / Router Home Gateway Usage Scenario

2.5      Digital Settop Box Home Gateway

Digital Settop Box (STB) is a consumer device connected to a TV set to provide the services like Digital High Definition Television, Content Decryption, Personal Video Recorder, Electronic Programming Guide etc.  Optionally it provides Web browsing and interactive television features. In addition to such traditional functionality of digital/HDTV, the STB home gateway device provides the below mentioned additional consumer benefits. The application/usage scenario of an STB home gateway device is shown in Figure-7

  • High broadband connectivity to the multiple PCs, and the information appliances in the house hold. high speed Wireless LAN access to anywhere in the house

  • In-home file/print/device sharing

  • Firewall security, parental protection and VPN connectivity

  • Show the content programming (directly received through satellite, cable, terrestrial or stored in the STB PVR hard disk) on to multiple TVs and display devices located in various rooms of the house

  • Streaming content and IP Video on Demand (received through broadband Internet connectivity or stored in the STB PVR hard disk) on to multiple TVs and display devices located in various rooms of the house

  • Enables remote health monitoring and security surveillance applications

Figure 7: Digital Settop Box Home Gateway Usage Scenario

3         Technical Architecture of Home Gateway

3.1      Hardware Architecture

The home gateway device hardware could be implemented as a single chip solution or a single board solution or a multi board solution depending on the perceived device volume and BOM cost trade offs. The hardware architecture for a home gateway device (implemented as a custom communication ASIC) is illustrated in Figure-8.

At the functional level the home gateway device SOC contains a RISC processor core, memory, DMA controllers and peripheral I/O interfaces. The I/O interfaces could be embedded with in the home gateway ASIC or they can be located as an external chip on the home gateway hardware board.  The popular home networking interfaces include Ethernet (as a 4 port Ethernet switch) , Home PNA (phone line), Home Plug (power line), USB Device, USB Host, IEEE 1394, Wireless LAN, and Bluetooth. The popular broadband Interfaces include cable and DSL. In general all the MAC's could be implemented in the ASIC itself and the PHYs can be connected externally to the home gateway ASIC.

In the case of a voice enabled home gateway, DSP and SLIC are needed for the voice compression and for analog phone connectivity. Some home gateway designs use an external DSP, whereas some implement the DSP instruction set in the custom ASIC through either the usage of a RISC/DSP combo processor core or through the usage of a DSP processor core. There are also implementations, where the Real Time Protocol (RTP) packetization of the voice samples could be done within the hardware itself. To improve the performance of the VPN functionality, the security (Crypto) algorithm functionality could be implemented in the hardware itself though a dedicated security coprocessor.

Figure 8: Home Gateway Hardware Block Diagram

3.2      Software Architecture

The software building blocks of a home gateway device is shown in Figure-9.  The software for home gateway devices can be classified into three levels: firmware, OS and application software stacks. The firmware level software includes the diagnostics, boot loader, debug interface drivers and operating system board support package. The home gateway device needs an embedded operating system, with the device drivers for all the on-board and on-chip physical interfaces like the cable, DSL, Wireless LAN, Ethernet, USB, 1394, Bluetooth, Home PNA, Home Plug etc. The Popular embedded operating systems include Embedded Linux, VxWorks, Nucleous etc.

All the software components for home gateway devices are based on the open standards like IEEE specifications, IETF RFCs, ITU specifications and industry specific forums like Cablelabs, DSL/ATM Forum, UPNP Forum, OSGi Consortium etc. The home gateway software should have well defined interfaces to integrate with the underlying hardware and should hold finely defined and documented APIs for the application development.

Figure 9: Home Gateway Software Building Blocks

The home gateway application software stacks shown in Figure-10 and explained in Table-3,  provide the core functionality of the home gateway. The home gateway application stacks are comprise of the following software components:

  • Communication protocol stacks for Routing, Bridging, Address Management (DNS, DHCP, NAT), quality of service (class based queuing, RSVP), security (VPN, IPSEC, Firewall), Remote and System Management (SNMP, Software Upgrades, HTML UI, UPnP IGD)

  • Voice Over Cable (Cablelabs PacketCable) and Voice Over DSL (DSL Forum BLES Specification) and Voice Over IP (H.323, SIP, MGCP) infrastructure software stacks

  • Audio/video streaming (RTP, RTCP, SDP, RTSP) and application service delivery (UPnP, OSGi) software stacks.

Figure 10: Home Gateway Software Stack

Table 3: Home Gateway Software Specifications

Interfaces

Broadband: Cable, ADSL, Fixed Wireless

In-home: IEEE802.11b, Bluetooth, IEEE1394, USB, HomePNA, Ethernet

Protocol Bridging

Spanning tree (IEEE802.1d) & Transparent Bridging, Media Translation

Routing

RIP (RFC1058), Multicast Routing (through IGMP Proxy)

Addressing

NAT/NAPT (RFC1631, 2993), DHCP client, server (RFC2131,2132), Dynamic DNS (RFC 1034-35, 2136, 2535)

QoS

RSVP (RFC2205, 2210) and Traffic Control Module implementing the Class Based Queuing

Security

Layer 2 Stateful and dynamic IP Packet Filtering, URL Filter, HTTPS

VPN

IPSec (RFC 2401, 06), IKE, PPTP (RFC2637), L2TP (RFC2661), PPPoE (RFC2516). Easy integration with 3rd party h/w & s/w  crypto libraries - SHA-1, MD5, 3DES, AES

Data Over DSL

ILMI, Classical IP & ARP Over ATM , MPOA (RFC1483), PPPoATM (RFC2364), OAM

Voice Over DSL

BLES (DSL Forum TR-036)

Voice Over Cable

PacketCable NCS (MGCP), PacketCable MTA

VOIP

H323, SIP and MGCP protocols

Streaming Stack

RTP, RTCP, SDP, RTSP, MEP Over RTP

Remote Management

SNMPv3  (RFC1157, 2271-227) with MIBS, Remote Software Upgrades, Logging and System Trace Features

Service Discovery

UPNP Application Framework, OSGi Application Framework, Application Bridging

Home Desktop

Application framework for easy and quicker deployment of Web Based Portal Applications to Discover, Operate, Control, Monitor and Administer the home devices and services

3.3      Home Gateway Engineering Design Challenges

Since the home gateway device is a consumer premises equipment, with low price point, it poses a number of engineering design challenges and constraints for the product manufacturers and silicon vendors. Explained below are a few of the software challenges and the proposed solutions for these challenges.

Low BOM cost: It would be a design challenge to manage the BOM cost within the prescribed limits, without compromising on the feature set and functionality. The home gateway software should occupy minimal FLASH and RAM. To accommodate this, the code should be optimized, pruned and should include only those features that are required. The software components should be well integrated to reduce redundancy of code. Home gateway usually runs on a low powered processor. To accommodate this, the software is separated into control and data path. The data path is frequently traversed, hence the source code for it has to be highly profiled and finely tuned, and code segments have to be optimized for performance. Data path can also utilize the services of hardware accelerators (e.g. DES, SHA-1, Bridging/NAT etc.).  

Interoperability: Home gateway device has to be interoperable with other devices and network elements. Interoperability gives confidence to the end user, that he can communicate to any body in the world over his broadband network. This is a very time consuming and capital-intensive process and can be achieved through the participation in the interop and dry-run events organized by the standards forums. On the data side, VPNC, UPnP, ICSA CableHome certifications help home gateway to be interoperable. A Cable MTA home gateway device has to be interop tested with other MTA devices and with multiple Call Management, Gateway and Provisioning Servers deployed at the cable head end. DSL IAD home gateway device has to be interop tested with other DSL IAD devices and with multiple voice gateway and Provisioning Servers deployed in the field, which is achieved through the participation in the interop and dry-run events organized by the organizations like OpenVoB CallFests, CIRPACK, NH-IOL. 

Standards Compliance: Open Standards Compliance is a must for the home gateway device, which incorporates advanced technologies. Open Standards Compliance and non-proprietary technologies guarantee an assured migration path for the next generation of features and helps in the maintainability of the Intellectual Property. The Open Standards to be followed include the IEEE Standards, IETF RFCs, Cablelabs Specifications and DSL Forum Recommendations. Cable MTA Home Gateway is based on the PacketCable spec, which is big and covers diverse areas as Signaling, CODECs, Security, QoS, Provisioning and Event Messaging. PacketCable is still evolving, and certain portions of the spec (for SMTA) is under development. DSL IAD home gateway is closely coupled with DSL forum and ATM forum specs. These standards  keep evolving from time to time. Working with evolving standards is not easy, since the development engineers have to be on top of every ECR/ECN that are submitted for the spec. This is where a licensed solution from a reliable vendor would be of value compared to the home grown solution; since the licensed stack takes care of the complete standards compliance and would provide assured migration path.

Well Defined Programmer Interfaces / APIs:  Home gateway device software should have well defined interfaces for integration with the various types of Voice CODECs, various DSP/SLICs, and should have well defined interfaces for the QoS Module (RSVP or DQoS), Security Module (hardware or software crypto, RSA, SHA etc.), various ATM SAR in case of DSL (AAL2 And AAL5). Well-defined interfaces protect the investment of the home gateway device manufacture and also saves valuable engineering time, in the event of change of the hardware components or certain software components.  In the case of an STB gateway, the infrastructure communications software stacks pertaining to the gateway, has to integrate well with the traditional STB software like the Conditional Access, Middleware, TV APIs etc. The stacks have to be easily portable to the STB OS (popular ones being VxWorks, Embedded Linux, Nucleous, PowerOS etc.).

Integrated Address Repository: For reasons of processing efficiency, many of home gateway software modules (such as packet filter) formulate/use rules based on IP address. Each time an in-home device is rebooted it may acquire a different IP address (from the DHCP Server), resulting in malfunctioning of certain software modules. Hence there is a need for an Integrated Address Management System, which informs all relevant modules about the IP address changes; giving details of host name, old IP address and new IP address.

Reliable Software/Firmware Upgrades: Possibility of power failure during firmware upgrade may lead to non-usable home gateway box. This possibility should be minimized. The firmware is divided into two parts (A - basic needed for obtaining new image and upgrading the firmware, B - full functionality). Part A needs to be rarely/never upgraded. After, the power comes, Part A checks for the sanity of part B firmware, and in case it identifies corruption, it automatically obtains the new firmware from the vendor's web-site and upgrades the home gateway.

Configuration Changes by End User: When configuration rules are modified by end user (without proper knowledge), the system might not function as expected. For supporting this, the user configuration is to be minimized and the user should also be provided with sufficient documentation (both on-line and off-line). User should be provided with an option to restore previous settings (saved somewhere else in the network).

NAT ALGs: To support Internet sharing, the private IP addresses of all outgoing packets are translated by NAT, to use Router's public IP address. However, some applications embed IP address within the packets exchanged with peer devices. Such applications would not work because NAT cannot decipher the application payload. Additional processing, specific to each application needs to be done along with NAT to enable support for such applications. This is called ALGs (Application Level Gateways). Since there are many such applications, supporting all ALGs in one-go is not easy, so a well-documented framework is needed to develop ALGs for new applications. This framework reduces the effort required for adding new ALGs.

Internet Gateway Device (IGD) Profile of UPnP:  facilitates the Windows client based applications to find the gateway's translated addresses, after communicating with the home gateway's NAT.  Applications can then use this information inside the payload of their packet exchanges. This is called NAT traversal using UPnP. This avoids the need for modifying the router's firmware for supporting new applications.

CableHome Management: CableHome facilitates the MSO, to provision and manage the home gateway device and the home network for the managed service deployment capabilities. It includes remote diagnostics for each of the network interfaces, configuration of Firewall/NAT rules, and NAT ALGs for frequently used applications, and providing pass through support for in-home devices having external IP address etc. CableHome support needs extensive SNMPv3 MIB instrumentation, CableHome Portal Services and provisioning related feature additions to the cable Router and involves extensive amount of certification and interop testing.

Quality of Voice: One of the objectives of voice enabled home gateway device is to provide a toll quality voice.  While there are a number of parameters that come into play for the quality of voice; the important ones would be the selection and usage of correct DSP CODECs, real time performance of the RTP media stack, implementation of Jitter Buffer, latency of the packets etc. To maintain the toll quality voice, the packet processing has to very accurate in VoDSL IAD's. This is accomplished by implementing the ATM AAL2 components I.366.2 and AAL2 CPS with a real time performance, which also takes care of silence suppression, Jitter Buffer and latency.

Ability to Support Multiple In-home Display Clients:  Since the STB home gateway can stream the media content and IP content to a number of in-home client devices with displays (like TVs connected to Thin STBs, Web Pads, IAs etc.) the streaming software has to be based on open standards like the IETF RFC Based RTP/RTCP and RTSP and has to support multiple content streams like MPEG4, MPEG2 etc. The streaming Software has to be interoperate tested with many streaming clients and servers.

4         References

[ 1.]   Residential Broadband, George Abe, Cisco Press

[ 2.]   Essential Guide to Home Networking, Gerard O' Driscoll

[ 3.]   Cablelabs (www.cablelabs.com) PacketCable and CableHome Specifications

[ 4.]   DSL Forum (www.dslforum.org) Specifications

5         About the Author

Satish Gupta is a Technical Product Manager at Wipro Technologies, Bangalore. He takes care of the product management for Wipro's Home Gateway Solution.  Satish is a member of CABA's (www.caba.org) Information Council and has authored several white papers in the home networking and residential broadband domain.

Satish received his Masters in Telecommunication Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur and MBA from Indian Institute of Management Bangalore.

Satish is reachable at Satish.Gupta@wipro.com

6         Glossary

API

Application Programming Interface

ASIC

Application Specific Integrated Circuit

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode, a prominent Packet based transport technology

Bluetooth

Bluetooth is a short range wireless interconnection technology specification for hand held devices like Palms, Pagers, Mobiles, PDA etc.

BOM

Bill Of Material Cost

Broadband

Broadband refers to telecommunication that provides multiple channels of data over a single communications medium, typically using some form of multiplexing

CODEC

Coder / Decoder used for Packetization of Voice into Samples and further compression

CableHome

Home Networking Specification from Cablelabs extending the QoS, Manageability and Security aspects to the end devices on the home network

CPE

Consumer Premises Equipment

DOCSIS

Data Over Cable Specifications from CableLabs

DSL

Digital Subscriber Line. It is a digital technology for transporting faster bit streams over the ordinary copper telephone lines.

DSP

Digital Signal Processor

H323

Signaling Standard for Voice Over IP

HDTV

High Definition Television

HFC

Hybrid fiber coaxial (HFC) network is a technology in which optical fiber cable and coaxial cable are used in different portions of a network to carry broadband content (such as video, data, and voice).

HPNA

Home Phoneline Networking Association is a consortium of companies working on technologies to transport high speed data over the in-home phone line networking

Home Plug

Home Powerline Networking Association is a consortium of companies working on technologies to transport high speed data over the in-home electric wiring

IAD

Integrated Access Device. It is a device through which both Data and Voice can be accessed over a DSL network.

IEEE 1394

High Speed Serial Bus Standard for transferring Audio/Video Content

IEEE 802.11

High speed Wireless LAN standard

IP

Internet Protocol (also Intellectual Property)

MAC

Medium Access Controller

MGCP

Media Gateway Control Protocol (for Voice over IP Signaling)

MIPS

Name of a micro processor from MIPS Inc (also Million Instructions Per Second)

MTA

Multimedia Terminal Adapter. It is a device using which Video and Voice (multimedia) can be transmitted over Cable Data networks

NAT

Network Address Translation

NCS

Network Call Signaling (a variant of MGCP employed by PacketCable)

OS

Operating System

OSGi

Open Services Gateway Initiative

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

PacketCable

Standards for transmitting voice and video services over Cable Data networks

PBX

Private Branch Exchange

PC

Personal Computer

PDA

Personal Digital Assistant. It is a small mobile hand-held device that provides computing and information storage

PSTN

Public Switched Telephone Network

QoS

Quality of Service

RG

Residential Gateway or Home Gateway Device

RTCP

Real Time Control Protocol

RTP

Real Time Protocol

SDP

Session Description Protocol

Settop Box

(STB)

This is the black box sitting over TV. It's main function is decrypt DTV signals and signals for Pay Per View TV Channels received over cable. Advanced Settop Boxes have more features like Interactive TV, Personal Video Recording etc.

SOC

System On Chip

SOHO

Small Office Home Office

SIP

Session Initiation Protocol (for Voice Over IP Signaling)

SLIC

Serial Line Interface Card. Set of R11 ports for Phone/Fax Connectivity

SNMP

Simple Network Management Protocol

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

UPNP

Universal Plug And Play. This is a device discovery and coordination protocol being pioneered by Microsoft.

USB

Universal Serial Bus

VLAN

Virtual LAN

VOIP

Voice Over IP Network

VPN

Virtual private Network

Web Pad

A touch screen based thin slate like device, which provides Internet Access and Browsing.

About Wipro Technologies

Wipro is the first PCMM Level 5 and SEI CMMi Level 5 certified IT Services Company globally. Wipro provides comprehensive IT solutions and services (including systems integration, IS outsourcing, package implementation, software application development and maintenance) and research & development services (hardware and software design, development and implementation) to corporations globally.

Wipro's unique value proposition is further delivered through our pioneering Offshore Outsourcing Model and stringent quality processes of SEI and Six Sigma.

© Copyright 2002. Wipro Technologies. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without express written permission from Wipro Technologies. Specifications subject to change without notice. All other trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners. Specifications subject to change without notice.


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